|Introduction: Living with a genetic condition is complex and may be limiting for the adolescent. This situation is considered a stress factor and risk factor for the mental health of both the patient and his family. Objective: To study the levels of psychological adaptation and genetic literacy in adolescents with genetic diseases residing in Argentina. Methods: Correlational and quantitative design and cross sectional scope. The protocol consisted of an informed consent, a sociodemographic data questionnaire, and the Genetic Health Literacy Screening Tool (REAL G) and Psychological Adaptation Scale (PAS) instruments. The sampling was intentional and composed by 68 cases. Results: The REAL G indicated low levels of genetic literacy in all its components (decoding, familiarity, comprehension, arithmetic). Regarding psychological adaptation, an M = 4.02 (SD = 0.8) was found for the general scale and high scores for all the dimensions. Conclusion: Adolescents diagnosed with genetic diseases in Argentina have a good level of psychological adaptation to their disease, despite having low levels of genetic literacy.